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KHUBILAI KHAN

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Some photos and informations copied from the www.mongolmedia.com

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1.CHINGGIS KHAN
The founder of the Mongolian state , Temuujin Chinggis Khan was born in 1162 , the black horse year , in Deluunboldog on the bank of river Onon , Hentei Aimag as the eldest son of Vesuhey Baatar and princess Oulun. Chingiis Khan united all the scattered Mongolian kingdoms and established a united state -the Mongolian Empire. He assumed the throne in 1206 , the red tiger year and passed away in 1227 , the pig year. The pirst capital of his empire was in Hudou aral on Herulen river , present Avarga Toson.

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2.UGEDEI KHAN
After the death of Chingis khan , his yongest son Tulay acted as the temprory head of state affairs and in 1228 , the yellow cattle year , the third son of chingiis khan , Ugedei was enthroned by the great Assemblage held in Hudee aral on the river Herlen. Ugedei was born in 1187 , the red horse year , and from the age of 17 he began to contribute to the strenthening of state affairs. Ugedei khan improved the organisational form of the state , finished the constraction of Karakorum city began by his father Chingis khan and made it the capital of his Mongolian Empire. The valuable heritage of Mongolian histoty and culture-the Mongolian secret cronicle-was accompplished during his lifetime. Ugedei khan passed away in 1241 , the white cattle year , at the age of 56.

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3.GUYUG KHAN
Guyug , the eldest son of Ugudei , was born in 1206 , the red tiger year. He was elevated to the throne in 1246. One of his many important measures was the first registration of the Mongolian population. In the field of foreign policy he followed his father and continued to conquer many other countries. Guyug khan passed away in 1248 , the yellow monkey yea

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4.MUHKH KHAN
Munkh khan , the eldest son of Chinggis khan's youngist son Tulay was born in 1208 , the yellow dragon year. In 1251 , the white tiger year , he assumed the throne by great Assamblage. He was a great statesman who made the Mongolian state the beggist empire in the world and maneged to maitain its integrity. Munkh Khan died in 1258 , the yellow sheep year , during his trip to south to conquer China.

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Who is Khubilai

Kublai Khan (1215-1294), Mongol military leader, founder and first emperor (1279-1294) of the Mongol Yuan dynasty in China, grandson of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and his best-known successor. Kublai Khan completed the conquest of China that was begun by his grandfather. From 1252 to 1259 he aided his brother Mangu Khan in the conquest of southern China, penetrating successfully as far as Tibet and Tonkin. Upon the death of Mangu in 1259 he became the khan, or ruler. Between 1260 and 1279 he succeeded in driving the Kin Tatars out of northern China and in subduing rebellious factions among the Mongols. In 1264 he founded his capital on the site now occupied by Beijing; it was called Khanbalik, which is romanized as Cambaluc or Cambalu. He relinquished all claims to the parts of the Mongol Empire outside China, consolidated his hold on China, and in 1279 established the Yuan dynasty as the successor to the Southern Song dynasty. He undertook foreign wars in attempts to enforce tribute claims on neighboring states, conquering Burma (now known as Myanmar) and Korea. His military expeditions to Java and Japan, however, met with disaster.

His name was known all over Asia and also in Europe. The court at Cambaluc attracted an international group of adventurous men, including the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo. Kublai Khan did much to encourage the advancement of literature and the arts. He was a devout Buddhist and made Buddhism the state religion, but during his reign other religions were also tolerated.

Where he from? What he did?

*Chingis Khan's ablest grandson; founder of the Yan dynasty; first northern alien to rule all China.

*Overseas expansion

-tried to conquer Japan twice (1274 and 1281) with massive naval assaults. But failed.
-made Tibet, Burma, Siam, Annam (in northern Vietnam), and Champa (in Southern Vietnam) tributary vassal states.
divided people in China into four groups, in a caste-like system, from top to bottom:

1.Mongols
2.other non-Chinese
3.North Chinese
4.South Chinese (former subjects of Southern Sung, 75%-80% of the total Yan population).

-Chinese humiliation: forbidden to bear arms, to learn the Mongolian language, and to assemble in groups; required to scrape and bow to Mongols and all other non- Chinese.




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6.ULZIIT TUMUR KHAN
Ulziit tumur khan,the third son of Chingem who was the eldest son of Kubulay , was born in 1265 , the blue cattle year.In 1294 , the blue horse year , he became King of Yuan Empire and in 1307 , the red sheep year , he passed away.

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7. HAISAN HULEG KHAN
Haisan Huleg khan , the son of Darambal-son of Chingem , was born in 1281 , the white snake year. He was installed on the throne in 1308 , the white pig year.

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8. AYURBARBADA BUYANT KHAN
Ayurbarbada buynt khan , the third son of Darambal, was born in 1285 , the blue hen year. He acceded to throne in 1312 and died in 1320 , the white monkey year.

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9.SHIDIBAL GEGEEN KHAN
Shidibal gegeen khan , the son of Buynt khan , was born in 1303 , the black horse year. He was enthroned in 1321 and passed away in 1324 , the blue rat year.

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10.YESUN TUMUR KHAN
Yesun tumur khan was born in 1276 , the black snake year. He was the second son of Gamal-the son of Chingem. In 1324 , the black pig year , he assumed the throne and passed away in 1328 , the yellow dragon year.

11.ASHETEV KHAN
The eldest son of Yesun tumur , Ashithev was born in 1320 , the year of the white monkey. In the end of 1382 , the yellow dragon year , he assumed the throne , but only a later he was dethroned.

12.HUSLEN KHAN
Huslen khan -the eldest son of Haisan khan , was born in 1300 , the was enthroned as Khan in 1329 and died the same year.

13.TUV TUMUR KHAN
He was born in 1304 , the blue dragon year. He was second son of Haisan. In 1329 , the yellow snake year , he assumed the throne and passed away in 1332 , the black monkey year.

14.RINCHINBAL KHAN
Rinchinbal khan, the son of Huslen Khan , was born in 1325 , the red tiger year. In 1332 , the black monkey year, he assumed the throne and two months later he passed away.

15.TOGOON TUMUR KHAN
Togoon tumur khan, the eldest brother of Rinchinbal , was born in 1320 , the white monkey year. He assumed the throne in 1333 , the black hen year and passed away in 1370 , the white dog year. The title of his royalty was 'Sage' and during his reign , in 1368 , a big rebellion in China arose causing the downfall of Mongolian domination.


16.BILEGT AYUSHRIDER KHAN
Ayushrider Bilegt khan-the eldest son of Togoon Tumur Khan was born in 1338 , the yelow tiger year. In 1370 he became the king of city Karakorum on native mohgolian territory was made the capital of Mongolia. He fought successfully against the Chinese Ming Dynasty and passed away in 1378 , the yellow horse year.

17.TUGSTUMUR USGAL KHAN
Togstumur usgal -the younger brother of Ayushrider , was born in 1342 , the black horse year. He assumed the throne in 1378. He was a resolute figther againest the agression of the Ming state of China. During his reign Karakorum city was set on fire by Chinese troops. Togstumur khan con centrated his forces on the rastern front , the center of the enemy troops , but he was killed by traitors in 1388 , the yellow dragon year.

18.ENKH ZORIGT KHAN
Enkh zorigt khan -the son of Togstumur khan , was born in 1359 , the yellow pig year. He was installed on the throne in 1389 and organized immense work to raise the economy of Mongolia. He died in 1392 , the black monkey year.

19.ELBEG NIGUULSEGCH KHAN
Elbeg niguulsegch khan-the younger brother of Enkh Zorig Khan was born in 1361 , the white catltle year. In 1393 , the black hen year , he assumed the throne and passed away in 1399 , the yellow rabbit year.

20.GUNTUMUR KHAN
The eldest son Elbeg niguulsegch khan , guntumur was born in 1377 , the red shake year. He ascended to the throne in 1400. The split among the Oirats and Mongols was even greater during his reigin. He was killed in 1402 , the black horse year

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Kubilai Khan



In Xanadu did Kubla Khan
A stately pleasure-dome decree :
Where Alph, the sacred river, ran
Through caverns measureless to man

Down to a sunless sea.

So twice five miles of fertile ground
With walls and towers were girdled round :
And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,
Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree ;
And here were forests ancient as the hills,
Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.
But oh ! that deep romantic chasm which slanted
Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover !
A savage place ! as holy and enchanted
As e'er beneath a waning moon was haunted
By woman wailing for her demon-lover !
And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething,
As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing,
A mighty fountain momently was forced :
Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst
Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail,
Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail :
And 'mid these dancing rocks at once and ever
It flung up momently the sacred river.
Five miles meandering with a mazy motion
Through wood and dale the sacred river ran,
Then reached the caverns measureless to man,
And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean :
And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far
Ancestral voices prophesying war !


The shadow of the dome of pleasure
Floated midway on the waves ;
Where was heard the mingled measure
From the fountain and the caves.

It was a miracle of rare device,
A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice !
A damsel with a dulcimer
In a vision once I saw :
It was an Abyssinian maid,
And on her dulcimer she played,
Singing of Mount Abora.
Could I revive within me
Her symphony and song,
To such a deep delight 'twould win me,

That with music loud and long,
I would build that dome in air,
That sunny dome ! those caves of ice !
And all who heard should see them there,
And all should cry, Beware ! Beware !
His flashing eyes, his floating hair !
Weave a circle round him thrice,
And close your eyes with holy dread,
For he on honey-dew hath fed,
And drunk the milk of Paradise

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